راهبردهای فرا سازمانی مقبولیت دهی به کار رفته توسط مدیران خرید

نوع مقاله : ترجمه

نویسندگان

1 کارشناس ارشد آماد و پشتیبانی / reza.Fariba1397@gmail.com

2 دانشیار دانشگاه جامع امام حسین(ع) / siavash_nopa@yahoo.com

3 کارشناس ارشد آماد و پشتیبانی (مترجم مسئول) / bahmanrashidi1355@gmail.com

چکیده

مقاله حاضر به اینکه مدیران خرید چگونه می توانند مقبولیت بخش خرید را درون سازمان توسعه دهند، می پردازد.در این رابطه از یک رویکرد تحقیقاتی کیفی شش موردی استفاده شد. تاکنون تحقیقی بر روی این موضوع انجام نشده است.تحلیلی از راهبردهای مقبولیت درونی، باید مفهوم و طبیعت روابط در میان بخش ها را نیز در نظر داشته باشد. تحلیل ها نشان می دهد که جهت ایجاد، حفظ یا افزایش مقبولیت درونی بخش، مدیران خرید باید در دو مورد زیر بسیار خوب عمل کنند: 1) شناسایی و جذب بهترین تامین کننده ها و 2) شناسایی و به کارگیری فرآیندهای همکاری و فرآیند های هماهنگی که توسط رقبا قابل کپی برداری نباشند در واقع، مدیران تأمین، راهبرد های مقبولیت داخلی و خارجی را توسعه می دهند چرا که سطح بالاتری از مقبولیت درونی می تواند به تدریج توسط سهامداران خارجی، که پس از استنباط سایر بخش ها و مدیریت ارشد تاثیر می گذارد، پشتیبانی شود.
تحقیقات همچنین نشان می دهد که راهبرد های به کار برده شده توسط مدیران خرید، بسته به تلاشی که دارند بر ابعاد مقبولیت (شناختی، عملی، اخلاقی) تأثیر می گذارند و شکل های متفاوتی می گیرند. بعلاوه، راهبرد مقبولیت یک بخش خرید، بسته به برخی از عوامل مهم ، توسعه می یابد: 1) بخش خرید در یک زمان معین از نظر سهم درک شده در ارزیابی ، شبیه به یک ترازنامه مالی است ،2) توانمندی فنی و رابطه ای پرسنل خرید و 3) حد نتایج در انتخاب های راهبردی که منجر به رشد مزیت رقابتی برای سازمانی که برای آن کار می کنند . به نظر می آید هر گونه تلاش برای گام برداشتن بر مبنای راهبرد های منسجم می توانند به ارتقای سطح مقبولیت بخش خرید و سطح رشد آن کمک کند. از این نقطه شروع، این مطالعه همچنین نشان می دهد که مقبولیت داخلی بخش خرید ، محرک اساسی  شیوه های خرید است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Intra-organizational legitimization strategies used by purchasing managers

نویسندگان [English]

  • reza fariba 1
  • Siavash Nosratpanah 2
  • bahman rashidi 3
1 MSc in Logistics (reza.fariba1397@gmail.com)
2 Associate Professor at Imam Hussein University (siavash_nopa@yahoo.com)
3 MSc in Logistics (Main Translator) (bahmanrashidi1355@gmail.com)
چکیده [English]

This paper addresses the issue of how purchasing managers can develop the purchasing department's legitimacy within an organization. A qualitative exploratory approach based on six cases has been used since: (1) there has not yet been a research performed on this topic; and (2) an analysis of internal legitimization strategies must take into consideration the context and the nature of the relationships among departments. Our analysis shows that in order to create, maintain or increase the purchasing department's internal legitimacy, purchasing managers have to do very well about two complementary strategic orientations: (1) identify and attract the best suppliers; (2) identify and implement collaborative processes and coordination mechanisms that cannot be duplicated by competitors. In fact, supply managers actually develop legitimization strategies based internally and externally, since a higher level of internal legitimacy can also be supported partially by external stakeholders, who then influence the other departments' and top management's perceptions. Our study also shows that the strategies used by purchasing managers take different forms depending which legitimacy dimension (cognitive, pragmatic, or moral legitimacy) they are trying to influence. Moreover, a purchasing department's legitimacy strategy is developed based on a few important factors: (1) where the purchasing department stands at a given time in terms of the contribution perceived, similar to a "balance sheet" evaluation; (2) the purchasing personnel's technical and relational competencies; and (3) the extent of their implication in the strategic choices leading to the development of a competitive advantage for the organization they work for. It seems that any effort to take steps based on coherent legitimization strategies could help improve both a purchasing department's legitimacy level and its development level. From this standpoint, this study also shows that the purchasing department's internal legitimacy is a crucial driver of purchasing practices.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Internal legitimacy
  • Legitimization strategies
  • Purchasing department
  • Case study
Araujo, L., Gadde, L.-E., Dubois, A., 2016. Purchasing and supply management and the role of supplier interfaces. IMP J. 10 (1), 2–24.
Ashworth, R., Boyne, G., Delbridge, R., 2009. Escape from the iron cage? Organizational change and isomorphic pressures in the public sector. J. Public Adm. Res. Theory 19 (1), 165–187.
Axelsson, B., Rozemeijer, F., Wynstra, F., 2006. Developing Sourcing Capabilities:Creating Strategic Change in Purchasing and Supply Management. John Wiley & Sons, New York (NY).
Baier, C., Hartmann, E., Moser, R., 2008. Strategic alignment and purchasing ecacy: an exploratory analysis of their impact on financial performance. J. Supply Chain Management. 44 (4), 36–52.
Barney, J., 1991. Firm resources and sustained competitive advantage. J. Manag. 17 (1), 99–120.
Barney, J., 2012. Purchasing, supply chain management and sustained competitive advantage: the relevance of resource-based theory. J. Supply Chain Management. 48 (2), 3–6.
Batenburg, R., Versendaal, J., 2008. Maturity matters: performance determinants of the procurement business function. In: Proceedings of the 16th European Conference on Information Systems, Galway, 563-574.
Bemelmans, J., Voordijk, H., Vos, B., 2013. Designing a tool for an eective assessment of purchasing maturity in construction. Benchmark.: Int. J. 20 (3), 342–361.
Bitektine, A., 2011. Toward a theory of social judgments of organizations: the case of legitimacy, reputation, and status. Acad. Management. Rev. 36 (1), 151–179.
Cammish, R., Keough, M., 1991. A strategic role for purchasing. McKinsey Q. 3, 22–39.
Carr, A., Smeltzer, L., 1997. An empirically based operational definition of strategic purchasing. Eur. J. Purch. Supply Management. 3 (4), 199–207.
Carr, A., Pearson, J., 2002. The impact of purchasing and supplier involvement on strategic purchasing and its impact on firm's performance. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Management. 22 (9/10), 1032–1053.
Carter, J., Narasimhan, R., 1996. Is purchasing really strategic? Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 32 (1), 20–28.
Cavinato, J., 1987. Purchasing performance: What makes the magic? J. Purch. Mater. Management. 23 (3), 10–16.
Chang, L., 1994. A psychometric evaluation of 4-point and 6-point Likert-type scales in relation to reliability and validity. Appl. Psychol. Meas. 18 (3), 205–215.
Chao, C.-N., Scheuing, E., Ruch, W., 1993. Purchasing performance evaluation: an investigation of dierent perspectives. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 29 (3), 33–39.
Chen, I., Paulraj, A., 2004. Towards a theory of supply chain management: the constructs and measurements. J. Oper. Management. 22 (2), 119–150.
Chen, I., Paulraj, A., Lado, A., 2004. Strategic purchasing, supply management, and firm performance. J. Oper. Management. 22 (5), 505–523.
Cousins, P., Spekman, R., 2003. Strategic supply and the management of inter- and intra- organisational relationships. J. Purch. Supply Management. 9 (1), 19–29.
Cousins, P., Lawson, B., Squire, B., 2006. An empirical taxonomy of purchasing functions. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Management. 26 (7), 775–794.
Cox, A., Chicksand, D., Ireland, P., Davies, T., 2005. Sourcing indirect spend: a survey of current internal and external strategies for non-revenue-generating goods and services. J. Supply Chain Management. 41 (2), 39–51.
Cracco, B., 2017. The new role of the purchasing function in the management of the extended enterprise. Strateg. Dir. 33 (2), 12–14.
Crespin-Mazet, F., Dontenwill, E., 2012. Sustainable procurement: building legitimacy in the supply network. J. Purch. Supply Management. 18 (4), 207–217.
Cruz-Suarez, A., Prado-Román, A., Prado-Román, M., 2014. Cognitive legitimacy, resource access and organizational outcomes. Rev. De. Adm. De. Empresas 54 (5), 575–584.
De Rose, L., 1996. Does it send the wrong message about purchasing? Electron. Buyers’ News 993, 22.
Deephouse, D., Bundy, J., Tost, L., Suchman, M., 2017. Organizational legitimacy: six key questions. In: Greenwood, R., Oliver, C., Lawrence, T., Meyer, R. (Eds.), The Sage handbook of organizational institutionalism, 2nd ed. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (CA) (in press).
Dowling, J., Pfeffer, J., 1975. Organizational legitimacy: social values and organizational behavior. Pac. Sociol. Rev. 18 (1), 122–136.
Drori, I., Honig, B., 2013. A process model of internal and external legitimacy. Organ. Stud. 34 (3), 345–376.
Dyer, J., Singh, H., 1998. The relational view: Cooperative strategy and sources of interorganizational competitive advantage. Acad. Management. Rev. 23 (4), 660–679.
Dyer, J., Hatch, N., 2006. Relation-specific capabilities and barriers to knowledge transfers: creating advantage through network relationships. Strateg. Management. J. 27 (8), 701–719.
Eisenhardt, K., 1989. Building theory from case study research. Acad. Management. Rev. 14 (4),532–550.
Eisenhardt, K., Schoonhoven, C., 1996. Resource-based view of strategic alliance formation: strategic and social eects in entrepreneurial rms. Organ. Sci. 7 (2),136–150.
Eisenhardt, K., Graebner, M., 2007. Theory building from cases: opportunities and challenges. Acad. Management. J. 50 (1), 25–32.
Ellram, L., 1996. The use of the case study method in logistics research. J. Bus. Logist. 17 (2), 93–138.
Ellram, L., Carr, A., 1994. Strategic purchasing: a history and review of the literature. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 30 (2), 10–18.
Ellram, L., Liu, B., 2002. The financial impact of supply management. Supply Chain Manag. Rev. 6 (6), 30–37.
Eltantawy, R., Fox, G., Giunipero, L., 2009a. Supply management ethical responsibility: reputation and performance impacts. Supply Chain Management.: Int. J. 14 (2), 99–108.
Eltantawy, R., Giunipero, L., Fox, G., 2009b. A strategic skill based model of supplier integration and its eect on supply management performance. Ind. Mark. Management. 38 (8), 925–936.
Fawcett, S., Waller, M., Miller, J., Schwieterman, M., Hazen, B., Overstreet, R., 2014. A trail guide to publishing success: tips on writing influential conceptual, qualitative,and survey research. J. Bus. Logist. 35 (1), 1–16.
Foerstl, K., Hartmann, E., Wynstra, F., Moser, R., 2013. Cross-functional integration and functional coordination in purchasing and supply management: Antecedents and eects on purchasing and rm performance. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Management. 33 (6),689–721.
Freeman, V., Cavinato, J., 1990. Fitting purchasing to the strategic firms: frameworks,processes, and values. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 26 (1), 6–10.
Gebert-Persson, S., Káptalan-Nagy, E., 2016. Legitimacy in the business network context.In: Thilenius, P., Pahlberg, C., Havila, V. (Eds.), Extending the Business Network Approach: New Territories, New Technologies, New Terms. Palgrave Macmillan,London, pp. 301–314.
Giannakis, M., Croom, S., 2004. Toward the development of a supply chain management paradigm: a conceptual framework. J. Supply Chain Management. 40 (2), 27–37.
Gibbert, M., Ruigrok, W., Wicki, B., 2008. What passes as a rigorous case study? Strateg.Management. J. 29 (13), 1465–1474.
Giunipero, L., Denslow, D., Eltantawy, R., 2005. Purchasing/supply chain management flexibility: moving to an entrepreneurial skill set. Ind. Mark. Management. 34 (6), 602–613.
Goebel, D., Marshall, G., Locander, W., 2003. Enhancing purchasing's strategic reputation: Evidence and recommendations for future research. J. Supply Chain Management. 39 (2), 4–14.
González-Benito, J., 2007. A theory of purchasing's contribution to business performance. J. Oper. Management. 25 (4), 901–917.
Goulding, C., 2002. Grounded theory: a pratical guide for management, business and market researchers. Sage Publications, London.
Hartmann, E., Kerkfeld, D., Henke, M., 2012. Top and bottom line relevance of purchasing and supply management. J. Purch. Supply Management. 18 (1), 22–34.
Hendrick, T., Carter, C., Siferd, S., 1996. Purchasing's involvement in time-based strategies. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 32 (3), 2–10.
Hesping, F.-H., Schiele, H., 2015. Purchasing strategy development: a multi-level review.J. Purch. Supply Management. 21 (2), 138–150.
Hillebrand, B., Kok, R., Biemans, W., 2001. Theory-testing using case studies: a commenton Johnston, Leach, and Liu. Ind. Mark. Management. 30 (8), 651–657.
Holt, G., 2014. Asking questions, analysing answers: relative importance revisited.Constr. Innov. 14 (1), 2–16.
Hybels, R., 1995. On legitimacy, legitimation, and organizations: a critical review and integrative theoretical model. Acad. Management. J., Spec. Issue (Best. Pap. Proc.)241–245.
Iyer, G., 1996. Strategic decision making in industrial procurement: implications forbuying decision approaches and buyer-seller relationships. J. Bus. Ind. Mark. 11 (3/4), 80–93.
Johnson, J., Holub, M., 2003. Questioning organizational legitimacy: the case of U.S.expatriates. J. Bus. Ethics 47 (3), 269–293.
Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., Pal, D.K., 2015. Likert scale: explored and explained. Br. J.Appl. Sci. Technol. 7 (4), 396–403.
Keough, M., 1993. Buying your way to the top. McKinsey Q. 3, 41–62.
Ketokivi, M., Choi, T., 2014. Renaissance of case research as a scientific method. J. Oper.Management. 32 (5), 232–240.
Knudsen, D., 2003. Aligning corporate strategy and e-procurement tools. Int. J. Phys.Distrib. Logist. Management. 33 (8), 720–734.
Langley, A., 1999. Strategies for theorizing from process data. Acad. Management. Rev. 24 (4),691–710.
Lawrence, T., Suddaby, R., Leca, B., 2011. Institutional work: refocusing institutional studies of organization. J. Management. Inq. 20 (1), 52–58.
Leenders, M., 1965. Improving Purchasing Eectiveness Through Supplier Development.Harvard University, Boston (MA).
Leenders, M., Nollet, J., Ellram, L., 1994. Adapting purchasing to supply chain mentement. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Management. 24 (1), 40–42.
Lincoln, Y., Guba, E., 1985. Naturalistic Inquiry. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (CA).
Low, B., Johnston, W., 2010. Organizational network legitimacy and its impact onknowledge networks: the case of China's TD-SCDMA mobility technology. J. Bus. Ind.Mark. 25 (6), 468–477.
Lozano, L., García-Cueto, E., Muñiz, J., 2008. Eect of the number of response categories on the reliability and validity of rating scales. Eur. J. Res. Methods Behav. Social. Sci.4 (2), 73–79.
Luzzini, D., Ronchi, S., 2011. Organizing the purchasing department for innovation. Oper.Management. Res. 4 (1–2), 14–27.
Luzzini, D., Ronchi, S., 2016. Cinderella purchasing transformation: Linking purchasing status to purchasing practices and business performance. Prod. Plan. Control 27 (10),787–796.
Macbeth, D., 1994. The role of purchasing in a partnering relationship. Eur. J. Purch.Supply Management. 1 (1), 19–25.
Matell, M., Jacoby, J., 1971. Is there an optimal number of alternatives for Likert scaleitems? Study 1: Reliability and validity. Educ. Psychol. Meas. 31 (3), 657–674.
McGinnis, M., Vallopra, R., 1999. Purchasing and supplier involvement in processimprovement: a source of competitive advantage. J. Supply Chain Management. 35 (4),42–50.
Meehan, J., Ludbrook, M., Mason, C., 2016. Collaborative public procurement: institutional explanations of legitimised resistance. J. Purch. Supply Management. 22 (3),160–170.
Mendez, E., Pearson, J., 1994. Purchasing's role in product development: the case for time-based strategies. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 30 (1), 3–12.
Meredith, J., Raturi, A., Amoako-Gyampah, K., Kaplan, B., 1989. Alternative research paradigms in operations. J. Oper. Management. 8 (2), 297–325.
Miles, M., Huberman, M., 1994. Qualitative Data Analysis, an Expanded Sourcebook, 2nded. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (CA).
Moses, A., Ahlstrom, P., 2008. Problems in cross-functional sourcing decision processes. J.Purch. Supply Management. 14 (2), 87–99.
Nair, A., Jayaram, J., Das, A., 2015. Strategic purchasing participation, supplier selection,supplier evaluation and purchasing performance. Int. J. Prod. Res. 53 (20),6263–6278.
Narasimhan, R., Das, A., 2001. The impact of purchasing integration and practices on manufacturing performance. J. Oper. Management. 19 (5), 593–609.
Parent, M., Deephouse, D., 2007. A case study of stakeholder identification and prioritization by managers. J. Bus. Ethics 75 (1), 1–23.
Park, H.-S., Auh, S., Maher, A., Singhapakdi, A., 2012. Marketing's accountability and internal legitimacy: implications for firm performance. J. Bus. Res. 65 (11), 1576–1582.
Paulraj, A., Chen, I., 2007. Environmental uncertainty and strategic supply management: A resource dependence perspective and performance implications. J. Supply Chain Management. 43 (3), 29–42.
Paulraj, A., Chen, I., Flynn, J., 2006. Levels of strategic purchasing: Impact on supply integration and performance. J. Purch. Supply Management. 12 (3), 107–122.
Paulraj, A., Lado, A., Chen, I., 2008. Inter-organizational communication as a relational competency: antecedents and performance outcomes in collaborative buyer-supplier relationships. J. Oper. Management. 26 (1), 45–64.
Pearson, J., Gritzmacher, K., 1990. Integrating purchasing into strategic management.Long. Range Plan. 23 (3), 91–99.
Pearson, J., Ellram, L., Carter, C., 1996. Status and recognition of the purchasing function in the electronic industry. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 32 (2), 30–36.
Pemer, F., Skjolsvik, T., 2016. Purchasing policy or purchasing police? The influence of institutional logics and power on responses to purchasing formalization. J. Supply Chain Management. 52 (4), 5–21.
Reck, R., Long, B., 1988. Purchasing: a competitive weapon. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 24(3), 2–8.
Rindova, V., Pollock, T., Hayward, M., 2006. Celebrity firms: the social construction of market popularity. Acad. Management. Rev. 31 (1), 50–71.
Rogowski, R., 2015. Rational legitimacy: a theory of political support. Princeton University Press, Princeton (NJ).
Rowley, T., Moldoveanu, M., 2003. When will stakeholder groups act? An interest- and identity-based model of stakeholder group mobilization. Acad. Management. Rev. 28 (2),204–219.
Rozemeijer, F., 2008. Purchasing myopia revisited again? J. Purch. Supply Management. 14 (3),205–207.
Rozemeijer, F., van Weele, A., Weggeman, M., 2003. Creating corporate advantage through purchasing: toward a contingency model. J. Supply Chain Management. 39 (1),4–13.
Ruef, M., Scott, W., 1998. A multidimensional model of organizational legitimacy: hospital survival in changing institutional environments. Adm. Sci. Q. 43 (4), 877–904.
Russell, C., Meehan, J., 2014. Exploring legitimacy in major public procurement projects.J. Public Procure. 14 (4), 495–537.
Schiele, H., 2007. Supply-management maturity, cost savings and purchasing absorptive capacity: testing the procurement–performance link. J. Purch. Supply Management. 13 (4),274–293.
Schoenherr, T., Modi, S., Benton, W., Carter, C., Choi, T.-Y., Larson, P., Leenders, M., Mabert, V., Narasimhan, R., Wagner, S., 2012. Research opportunities in purchasing and supply management. Int. J. Prod. Res. 50 (16), 4556–4579.
Schweiger, J., 2016. Concept of a purchasing and supply management maturity framework. In: Bogaschewsky, R., Essig, M., Lasch, R., Stölzle, W. (Eds.), Supply management research. Springer, Wiesbaden, pp. 153–176.
Siggelkow, N., 2007. Persuasion with case studies. Acad. Management. J. 50 (1), 20–24.
Spina, G., Caniato, F., Luzzini, D., Ronchi, S., 2016. Assessing the use of external grand theories in purchasing and supply management research. J. Purch. Supply Management. 22(1), 18–30.
Steinle, C., Schiele, H., 2008. Limits to global sourcing? Strategic consequences of dependency on international suppliers: cluster theory, resource-based view and case studies. J. Purch. Supply Management. 14 (1), 3–14.
Suchman, M., 1995. Managing legitimacy: strategic and institutional approach. Acad.Management. Rev. 20 (3), 571–610.
Suddaby, R., Bitektine, A., Haack, P., 2017. Legitimacy. Acad. Management. Ann. 11 (1),451–478.
Tassabehji, R., Moorhouse, A., 2008. The changing role of procurement: developing professional eectiveness. J. Purch. Supply Management. 14 (1), 55–68.
Terpend, R., Tyler, B., Krause, D., Handfield, R., 2008. Buyer-supplier relationships: derived value over two decades. J. Supply Chain Management. 44 (2), 28–55.
Thiétart, R.-A., 2001. Doing management research: a comprehensive guide. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks (CA).
Tilling, M., 2004. Some thoughts on legitimacy theory in social and environmental accounting. Social. Environ. Account. J. 24 (2), 3–7.
Úbeda, R., Alsua, C., Carrasco, N., 2015. Purchasing models and organizational performance: a study of key strategic tools. J. Bus. Res. 68 (2), 177–188.
van Weele, A., 2014. Purchasing and Supply Chain Management, 6th ed. Cengage Learning, Boston (MA).
van Weele, A., van Raaij, E., 2014. The future of purchasing and supply management research: about relevance and rigor. J. Supply Chain Management. 50 (1), 56–72.
Watts, C., Kim, K.-Y., Hahn, C., 1992. Linking purchasing to corporate competitive strategy. Int. J. Purch. Mater. Management. 28 (4), 2–8.
Weick, K., 2007. The generative properties of richness. Acad. Management. J. 50 (1), 14–19.
Wolf, H.-H., 2005. Making the transition to strategic purchasing. MIT Sloan Management. Rev.46 (4), 17–21.
Yin, R., 2013. Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 5th ed. Sage Publications,Thousand Oaks (CA).
Zhang, C., Viswanathan, S., Henke Jr, J., 2011. The boundary spanning capabilities of purchasing agents in buyer-supplier trust development. J. Oper. Management. 29 (4),318–328.
Zimmermann, F., Foerstl, K., 2014. A meta-analysis of the “purchasing and supply management practice-performance link”. J. Supply Chain Management. 50 (3), 37–54.
Zorzini, M., Hendry, L., Huq, F., Stevenson, M., 2015. Socially responsible sourcing:Reviewing the literature and its use of theory. Int. J. Oper. Prod. Management. 35 (1),60–109.
Zsidisin, G., Ellram, L., Ogden, J., 2003. The relationship between purchasing and supply management's perceived value and participation in strategic supplier cost management activities. J. Bus. Logist. 24 (2), 129–154.
Zyglidopoulos, S., 2003. The issue life-cycle: implications for reputation for social performance and organizational legitimacy. Corp. Reput. Rev. 6 (1), 70–82